Licensing and regulation To practice pharmacy in those countries in which a license is required, an applicant must be qualified by graduation from a recognized college of pharmacy, meet specific requirements for experience, and pass an examination conducted by a board of pharmacy appointed by the government.
Often, individual state laws outline what defines a valid patient-doctor relationship.
It is the community pharmacy where the dichotomy of the profession exists—health professionals who are also retailers. These laws recognize the national pharmacopoeia which defines products used in medicinetheir purity, dosages, and other pertinent data as the standard for drugs.
Canada is home to dozens of licensed Internet pharmacies, many of which sell their lower-cost prescription drugs to U. While most Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs and require a valid prescription, some Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs without requiring a prescription.
Many of these pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, and in fact, many of them are actually operated by brick-and-mortar community pharmacies that serve consumers online and those that walk in their door. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized medications, than would be feasible in the community History of pharmacy.
Apothecary traditions traveled to the New World with the English colonists, where they flourished for centuries. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized medications, than would be feasible in the community setting. And so the practice of pharmacy is coming full circle.
The first college of pharmacy was founded in the United States in and is now known as the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by a manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangduisealed in BC.
Sabur Ibn Sahl dwas, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments. Hospital pharmacies can often be found within the premises of the hospital. Society and culture[ edit ] Etymology[ edit ] The word pharmacy is derived from Old French farmacie "substance, such as a food or in the form of a medicine which has a laxative effect" from Medieval Latin pharmacia from Greek pharmakeia Greek: De Materia Medica Sumerian cuneiform tablets record prescriptions for medicine.
In Asian countries it is traditional for physicians to also provide drugs. Many customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the "inconvenience" of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications which their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. It is also often a requirement that the owner of a pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist, although this is not the case in all jurisdictions, such that many retailers including supermarkets and mass merchandisers now include a pharmacy as a department of their store.
Pharmacy laws generally include the regulations for the practice of pharmacy, the sale of poisons, the dispensing of narcotics, and the labeling and sale of dangerous drugs.
The movement had gathered considerable steam by the time federal legislation once again intervened, this time in the form of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act. Pharmacists in this setting often do not dispense drugs, but rather see patients in office visits to manage chronic disease states.
As new discoveries advance and extend the pharmaceutical sciences, subspecialties continue to be added to this list.
The movement had gathered considerable steam by the time federal legislation once again intervened, this time in the form of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act. Since the treatment of the sick with drugs encompasses a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, an understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training.
In addition, consultant pharmacistswho traditionally operated primarily in nursing homes are now expanding into direct consultation with patients, under the banner of "senior care pharmacy.
Simply "What the drug does to the body"  Pharmacokinetics: The high cost of medications and drug-related technology, combined with the potential impact of medications and pharmacy services on patient-care outcomes and patient safety, make it imperative that hospital pharmacies perform at the highest level possible.
The searing Tucson summers prompted Dean Brewer to remark that "air conditioning of the entire building is hailed as the greatest development since the establishment of the College. In addition to medicines and prescriptions, many now sell a diverse arrangement of additional items such as cosmeticsshampoooffice suppliesconfectionssnack foodsdurable medical equipmentgreeting cardsand provide photo processing services.
These shared fundamental concepts further the understanding of their applicability to all aspects of pharmaceutical research and drug therapy. In ancient Greece and Rome and during the Middle Ages in Europethe art of healing recognized a separation between the duties of the physician and those of the herbalist, who supplied the physician with the raw materials from which to make medicines.The American Institute of the History of Pharmacy is a non-profit national organization devoted to advancing knowledge and understanding of the place of pharmacy in history.
The UA College of Pharmacy has a history of embracing its entrepreneurial spirit, seeking to offer innovative pharmacy programs, centers and research that identifies new therapies and standards of.
The History of Pharmacy Museum at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy grew out of the work of Jesse Hurlbut, a former Tucson pharmacist and state pharmacy board inspector and collector of pharmacy items from around Arizona and the West. Pharmacy is a recognized part of medical practice dating as far back as Sumerian times, around 2, to 1, BC, from which cuneiform tablets have been preserved recording prescribed medications.
Additionally, a number of ancient Egyptian papyri were introduced on the theoretical aspects of the practice. The first college of pharmacy was founded in the United States in and is now known as the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science. Other institutes and colleges were established soon after in the United States, Great Britain, and continental Europe.
The current UCSF School of Pharmacy is founded in as the California College of Pharmacy by a group of farsighted members of the California Pharmaceutical Society, itself then only four years old. This is the first college of pharmacy in the West and the tenth in the United States.Download